"Low-grade vascular inﬂammation plays a key role in all stages of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Weight loss has been shown to improve blood inﬂammatory markers; however, it is unknown if weight-loss diets varying in macronutrient composition differentially affect inﬂammatory responses. Aim: to compare a very-low-carbohydrate diet and a low-fat weight-loss diet on inﬂammatory biomarkers in overweight men."
12 weeks - 6 wks for each diet: washout duration unknown
"Targets E: -2.1MJ/d based on resting E expenditure Carb: <10%E Protein: 30%E Fat: 60%E Intake E: 7.77MJ/d (~1855kcal/d) Carb: 8%E Protein: 28%E Fat: 63%E Sat fat: 46g/d"
"LF diet Targets E: -2.1MJ/d based on resting E expenditure Carb: 55%E Protein: 20%E Fat: 25%E Sat fat: <10%E Intake E: 6.54MJ/d (~1562kcal/d) Carb: 56%E Protein: 20%E Fat: 23%E Sat fat: 13g/d"
"Primary: Biomarkers for inﬂammation: - C-reactive protein (CRP) - proinﬂammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) - cell-adhesion molecules intercellular cell-adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and P-selectin Secondary: BMI"
"Both diets SS reduced BMI. Both diets SS improved CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and CAM-1. Both reduced P=selectin but change was NSS An analysis of reduction in each biomarker per 1 kg BMI found a BG SS difference favoring the VLC diet "
"CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1 WG: Y BG: N P-selectin WG: N BG: N WG NSS both diets BG NSS at 12 wks CRP VLC -1.6mg/l WG SS p=0.00005 LF diet: -1.4mg/l WG SS p=0.00001 BG NSS TNF-α VLC: -1.5pg/ml WG SS p=0.00001 LF: -1.4pg/ml WG SS p=0.00001 BG NSS IL-6 VLC: -2.0pg/ml WG SS p=0.00000 LF: -1.8pg/ml WG SS p=0.00000 BG NSS ICAM-1 VLC: -61.3ng/ml WG SS p=0.00007 LF: -67ng/ml WG SS p=0.00002 BG NSS "
Compliance with VLC diet confirmed by urine strip test for ketones.
"""A novel ﬁnding was that two energy-restricted diets that represented extremes in macronutrient distribution resulted in similar improvements in inﬂammatory biomarkers. This ﬁnding is important, because it supports the concept that overweight individuals have some ﬂexibility in choosing diets varying in composition and still improve inﬂammatory status, as long as they lose weight."" ""The results ... suggest that, in the short-term, weight loss appears to be the driving force underlying the reduction in inﬂammatory markers and not the composition of the diet."" "
AHA - American Heart Association;
ALT - alanine aminotransferase;
AMDR - acceptable macronutrient distribution range;
AST - aspartate aminotransferase;
BG - between study groups;
BHOB - beta-hydroxybutyrate;
DBP - diastolic blood pressure;
E- energy, caloric intake;
eGFR - estimated glomerular filtration rate;
FBG - fasting blood glucose;
GGT - gamma-glutamyl transferase;
HDL-C - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
iGFR - isotope glomerurar filtration rate;
LDL-C - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
NAFLD - non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;
NR - not reported (or data needed for calculation not available);
N - no;
NA - not applicable;
NS - not specified;
NSS - not statistically significant;
SBP - systolic blood pressure;
SS - statistically significant;
TG - triglyceride;
total C - total cholesterol;
V - varied, mixed;
WG - within a study group;
WMD - weighted mean difference;
Y - yes
Number of People in Studies:
3,296 Enrolled in randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
2,626 Completed randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
79.67% 82% completion of studies
Duration of Trial
1 -2 years
# of Trials
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