Visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome after very high-fat and low-fat isocaloric diets: a randomized controlled trial.

"Visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome after very high-fat and low-fat isocaloric diets: a randomized controlled trial. VL Veum, J Laupsa-Borge, Ø Eng et al. American Journal of Clinical Nutrtion. 2017 Jan;105(1):85-99. Epub 2016 Nov 30. "
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"Aspects of diet, including macronutrient and food profiles, may affect visceral fat mass and metabolic syndrome. Previous studies exploring the effects of high-fat diets often include E-dense diets with large amounts of processed carbohydrates and poor overall quality, confounding effects of a high fat intake per se Aim: to test the hypothesis that consuming energy primarily from carbohydrate or fat in diets with similar food profiles would differentially affect the ability to reverse visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome"
12 wks
"Very high-fat, low-carb (VHFLC) Targets E: 8750kJ/d (~2090kcal/d) Carb: 10%E; 50g/d Protein: 17%E; 90g/d Fat: 73%E; 170g/d Reported intake: E: 8898kJ/d (~2127kcal/d) Carb: 56.1g/d; ~10.6%E Protein: 89.3g/d Fat: 167g/d; ~70.7%E"
"Low-fat high-carb (LCHF) Targets E: 8750kJ/d (~2090kcal/d) Carb: 53%E; 275g/d Protein: 17%E; 90g/d Fat: 30%E; 70g/d Reported intake: E: 9226kJ/d (~2205kcal/d) Carb: 281g/d; ~51.0%E Protein: 91.9g/d Fat: 71.9g/d; ~29.3%E"
"Primary: visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome markers Visceral adiposity and other measures of body composition, including: - weight - BMI - waist size - body fat %, body fat mass - subcutaneous fat Measure of metabolic syndrome: - SBP, DBP - lipids - glucose control (FBG, HbA1c) - inflammation (HOMA)"
"Both diets similarly improved (WG SS, BG NSS): - weight - waist size - abdominal subcutaneous fat mass - visceral fat mass - liver fat and liver function markers - TG - fasting insulin - insulin C-peptide - HbA1c - HOMA Diets differed (BG SS) for: - HDL-C - increased only in VHFLC diet - LDL-C, total-C - lowered only in LFHC diet Values reported are all unadjusted. WG SS p values NR."
"HOMA2-IR & HOMA2-%S WG: Y BG: N HOMA2-IR At 12 wks VHFLC diet -0.48 LFHC -0.60BG NSS "
"All liver function markers improved or NSS change. "
Reported dietary intake suggests excellent adherence.
" Our results are in line with systematic reviews and metaanalyses of epidemiologic and dietary intervention studies,which overall do not support a causal connection between SFA intake per se and risk of metabolic syndrome, fatty liver, or CVD, regardless of the effects on LDL cholesterol. ...Consuming E primarily as carbohydrate or fat for 3 mo did not differentially influence visceral fat and metabolic syndrome in a low-processed, lower-glycemic dietary context. Our data do not support the idea that dietary fat per se promotes ectopic [in abnormal place] adiposity and cardiometabolic syndrome in humans."


AHA - American Heart Association;
ALT - alanine aminotransferase;
AMDR - acceptable macronutrient distribution range;
AST - aspartate aminotransferase;
BG - between study groups;
BHOB - beta-hydroxybutyrate;
DBP - diastolic blood pressure;
E- energy, caloric intake;
eGFR - estimated glomerular filtration rate;
FBG - fasting blood glucose;
GGT - gamma-glutamyl transferase;
HDL-C - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
iGFR - isotope glomerurar filtration rate;
LDL-C - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
NAFLD - non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;
NR - not reported (or data needed for calculation not available);
N - no;
NA - not applicable;
NS - not specified;
NSS - not statistically significant;
SBP - systolic blood pressure;
SS - statistically significant;
TG - triglyceride;
total C - total cholesterol;
V - varied, mixed;
WG - within a study group;
WMD - weighted mean difference;
Y - yes

Number of People in Studies:

3,296 Enrolled in randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
2,626 Completed randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
79.67% 82% completion of studies

Duration of Trial

<6 Months
6-9 Months
1 -2 years
>2 years

# of Trials


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