The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
"The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. EC Westman, WS Yancy, JC Mavropoulos et al. Nutrition & Metabolism 2008 Dec 19;5:36. "
"Both diets resulted in SS improvements in HbA1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, BMI, and weight loss. The LCK diet group had greater improvements in HbA1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%), body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p=0.008), and HDL-C (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p<0.001) compared to the LGI diet group. Diabetes medications were reduced or eliminated in 95.2% of LCK diet group vs. 62% of LGI diet subjects."
"WG: NR BG: Y n (%) taking meds at baseline; n (%) reducing or eliminating meds at 24 weeks LC: 20 (95.2%); 20 (95.2%) (100% of those taking meds eliminated med or reduced dose) Low GI: 22(75.9%); 18(62.1%) (81.8% of those taking meds eliminated med or reduced dose) BG SS p<0.01 "
"Most common - headache, constipation, diarrhea, insomnia (more common in LC group) - back pain (more common in Low GI group) All BG NSS"
"Completion rates LC diet - 55.3% Control - 63.0%"
"Both diets led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with T2D. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/ elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing T2D."
AHA - American Heart Association;
ALT - alanine aminotransferase;
AMDR - acceptable macronutrient distribution range;
AST - aspartate aminotransferase;
BG - between study groups;
BHOB - beta-hydroxybutyrate;
DBP - diastolic blood pressure;
E- energy, caloric intake;
eGFR - estimated glomerular filtration rate;
FBG - fasting blood glucose;
GGT - gamma-glutamyl transferase;
HDL-C - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
iGFR - isotope glomerurar filtration rate;
LDL-C - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
NAFLD - non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;
NR - not reported (or data needed for calculation not available);
N - no;
NA - not applicable;
NS - not specified;
NSS - not statistically significant;
SBP - systolic blood pressure;
SS - statistically significant;
TG - triglyceride;
total C - total cholesterol;
V - varied, mixed;
WG - within a study group;
WMD - weighted mean difference;
Y - yes
Number of People in Studies:
3,296 Enrolled in randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
2,626 Completed randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
79.67% 82% completion of studies
Duration of Trial
1 -2 years
# of Trials
Join the Low-Carb Action Network to stay informed of our latest news and calls to action.
Don't miss out on the chance to lend your voice for change!