Low-fat versus low-carbohydrate weight reduction diets: effects on weight loss, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk: a randomized control trial.
"Low-fat versus low-carbohydrate weight reduction diets: effects on weight loss, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk: a randomized control trial. U Bradley, M Spence, CH Courtney et al. Diabetes. 2009 Dec;58(12):2741-8. Epub 2009 Aug 31. "
"Low-fat hypocaloric (LF) diets reduce insulin resistance and prevent T2D. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC) diets are advocated as an alternative, but reciprocal increases in dietary fat may have detrimental effects on insulin resistance and offset the beneﬁts of weight reduction. Aim: to investigate the effects of a LF diet vs a LC diet."
"Targets E: 7.9MJ/d (`1887kcal/d) Carb: 20%E Protein: 20%E Fat: 60%E Intake: same as above"
"Targets E: 7.1MJ/d (`1696kcal/d) Carb: 60%E Protein: 20%E Fat: 20%E Intake: same as above"
"Primary: insulin resistance (by glucose infusion rate [GIR] during euglycemic clamp) Secondary: body composition, meal tolerance–related insulin secretion, vascular compliance, plasma leptin, and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4)."
"Weight and all other measures of body composition, GIR, HbA1c, SBP, DBP, fasting insulin and TG all improved SS in both groups. TG SS improved only in the LC diet; BG SS different. HDL-c worsened in both diets but SS so only in LF diet. Total C and arterial stiffness SS better only in LF diet."
"Insulin secretion after meal tolerance test WG: Y BG: N SS improved only in LC diet"
"Systemic arterial stiffness WG: N BG: N Improved in both groups but SS only in LF group. BG NSS Leptin WG: Y BG: N decreased SS both groups RBP4 WG: Y BG: N Decreased SS both groups BG NSS"
"This study demonstrates comparable effects on insulin resistance of LF and LC diets independent of macronutrient content.The difference in augmentation index [arterial stiffness] may imply a negative effect of LC diets on vascular risk."
AHA - American Heart Association;
ALT - alanine aminotransferase;
AMDR - acceptable macronutrient distribution range;
AST - aspartate aminotransferase;
BG - between study groups;
BHOB - beta-hydroxybutyrate;
DBP - diastolic blood pressure;
E- energy, caloric intake;
eGFR - estimated glomerular filtration rate;
FBG - fasting blood glucose;
GGT - gamma-glutamyl transferase;
HDL-C - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
iGFR - isotope glomerurar filtration rate;
LDL-C - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
NAFLD - non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;
NR - not reported (or data needed for calculation not available);
N - no;
NA - not applicable;
NS - not specified;
NSS - not statistically significant;
SBP - systolic blood pressure;
SS - statistically significant;
TG - triglyceride;
total C - total cholesterol;
V - varied, mixed;
WG - within a study group;
WMD - weighted mean difference;
Y - yes
Number of People in Studies:
3,296 Enrolled in randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
2,626 Completed randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
79.67% 82% completion of studies
Duration of Trial
1 -2 years
# of Trials
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