Low-fat hypocaloric (LF) diets reduce insulin resistance and prevent T2D.
"Low-fat hypocaloric (LF) diets reduce insulin resistance and prevent T2D. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC) diets are advocated as an alternative, but reciprocal increases in dietary fat may have detrimental effects on insulin resistance and offset the beneﬁts of weight reduction. Aim: to investigate the effects of a LF diet vs a LC diet."
"Targets E: 7.9MJ/d (`1887kcal/d) Carb: 20%E Protein: 20%E Fat: 60%E Intake: same as above"
"Targets E: 7.1MJ/d (`1696kcal/d) Carb: 60%E Protein: 20%E Fat: 20%E Intake: same as above"
"Primary: insulin resistance (by glucose infusion rate [GIR] during euglycemic clamp) Secondary: body composition, meal tolerance–related insulin secretion, vascular compliance, plasma leptin, and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4)."
"Weight and all other measures of body composition, GIR, HbA1c, SBP, DBP, fasting insulin and TG all improved SS in both groups. TG SS improved only in the LC diet; BG SS different. HDL-c worsened in both diets but SS so only in LF diet. Total C and arterial stiffness SS better only in LF diet."
"FBG WG: N BG: N BG NSS GIR WG: Y BG: N SS improved only in LC diet GIR Baseline→8 wks LC diet 23.5→28.3 p=0.02 LF diet 28.3→30.2 WG NSS BG NSS"
"WG: Y BG: N Baseline→8 wks LC diet 5.3%→5.2 p<0.01 LF diet WG NSS"
"WG: N BG: N Improved in both; SS only in LF diet group. Baseline→8 wks LC diet 4.65mmol/L→4.05 WG NSS LF diet 5.0mmol/L→4.12 WG p<0.01 BG NSS"
"WG: N BG: N Worsened in both diet groups but SS only in LF diet. Baseline→8 wks LC diet 1.47mmol/L→1.35 WG NSS LF diet 1.40mmol/L→1.15 WG p<0.01 BG NSS"
"WG: N BG: N Improved in both diet groups but SS only in LF diet. Baseline→8 wks LC diet 2.46mmol/L→2.1 WG NSS p=0.05 LF diet 2.85mmol/L→2.41 WG p<0.01 BG NSS"
"WG: Y BG: Y Improved in both diet groups but SS only in LC diet. Baseline→8 wks LC diet 1.59mmol/L→0.91 WG NSS p<0.01 LF diet 1.55mmol/L→1.43 WG NSS BG SS p=0.01"
"Weight, BMI, waist size, fat and lean mass, %body fat, all WG: Y BG: N All improved SS in both diet groups. Weight Baseline→8 wks LC diet 97.7kg→90.3 WG SS p<0.01 LF diet 91.5→85.0 WG SS p<0.01 BG NSS BMI Baseline→8 wks LC diet 34.5→31.9 WG SS p<0.01 LF diet 32.8→30.5 WG SS p<0.01 BG NSS "
"WG: Y BG: N Improved SS both groups Baseline→8 wks LC diet 122mmHg→114 WG SS p<0.01 LF diet 127mmHg→119 WG SS p=0.03 BG NSS"
"WG: Y BG: N Improved SS both groups Baseline→8 wks LC diet 70mmHg→65 WG SS p=0.03 LF diet 77mmHg→71 WG SS p<0.01 BG NSS"
"WG: Y BG: N Improved SS in both diet groups. Baseline→8 wks LC diet 12.5mU/I→7.4 WG NSS p<0.01 LF diet 11.4mU/I→9.0 WG SS p=0.02 BG NSS "
"Insulin secretion after meal tolerance test WG: Y BG: N SS improved only in LC diet"
"Systemic arterial stiffness WG: N BG: N Improved in both groups but SS only in LF group. BG NSS Leptin WG: Y BG: N decreased SS both groups RBP4 WG: Y BG: N Decreased SS both groups BG NSS"
"This study demonstrates comparable effects on insulin resistance of LF and LC diets independent of macronutrient content.The difference in augmentation index [arterial stiffness] may imply a negative effect of LC diets on vascular risk."
AHA - American Heart Association;
ALT - alanine aminotransferase;
AMDR - acceptable macronutrient distribution range;
AST - aspartate aminotransferase;
BG - between study groups;
BHOB - beta-hydroxybutyrate;
DBP - diastolic blood pressure;
E- energy, caloric intake;
eGFR - estimated glomerular filtration rate;
FBG - fasting blood glucose;
GGT - gamma-glutamyl transferase;
HDL-C - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
iGFR - isotope glomerurar filtration rate;
LDL-C - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
NAFLD - non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;
NR - not reported (or data needed for calculation not available);
N - no;
NA - not applicable;
NS - not specified;
NSS - not statistically significant;
SBP - systolic blood pressure;
SS - statistically significant;
TG - triglyceride;
total C - total cholesterol;
V - varied, mixed;
WG - within a study group;
WMD - weighted mean difference;
Y - yes
Number of People in Studies:
3,296 Enrolled in randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
2,626 Completed randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
79.67% 82% completion of studies
Duration of Trial
1 -2 years
# of Trials
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