Long-term effects of weight loss with a very-low carbohydrate, low saturated fat diet on flow mediated dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised controlled trial.
"Long-term effects of weight loss with a very-low carbohydrate, low saturated fat diet on flow mediated dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised controlled trial. TP Wycherley, CH Thompson, JD Buckley. Atherosclerosis, volume 252, Sept 2016, pp 28-31. "
"Very low-carb diets can improve glycemic control in T2D, but have been associated with impaired endothelial function (measured by flow mediated dilation, FMD). Aim: To report on a secondary outcome (endothelial function) of a study (J Tay et al 2015) that aimed to compare effects of two low-calorie diets of the same caloric intake (very-low carb, low saturated fat diet vs. a high-carb diet). "
"High-carb diet Targets E: women 6MJ/1433kcal; men 7MJ/1671kcal Carb: 53%E; emphasis - low-glycemic index foods Protein: 17%E Fat: <30%E; 15%E MUFA, 9%E PUFA Saturated fat: <10%E Intake: NR"
"Primary: Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery Secondary: HbA1c, weight"
"FMD did not change SS in either diet group. Changes in weight and HbA1c were similar for the two groups. See Tay 2015 for other findings."
"Previous studies on low-carb and FMD found a detrimental effect. Reasons for the NSS effect in the current study are not clear, but perhaps can be attributed to the low prescribed level of saturated fat in the low-carb diet. The similar FMD response between diet groups ""suggests a very-low carbohydrate diet high in unsaturated fat and low in saturated fat does not adversely affect endothelial function."""
AHA - American Heart Association;
ALT - alanine aminotransferase;
AMDR - acceptable macronutrient distribution range;
AST - aspartate aminotransferase;
BG - between study groups;
BHOB - beta-hydroxybutyrate;
DBP - diastolic blood pressure;
E- energy, caloric intake;
eGFR - estimated glomerular filtration rate;
FBG - fasting blood glucose;
GGT - gamma-glutamyl transferase;
HDL-C - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
iGFR - isotope glomerurar filtration rate;
LDL-C - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
NAFLD - non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;
NR - not reported (or data needed for calculation not available);
N - no;
NA - not applicable;
NS - not specified;
NSS - not statistically significant;
SBP - systolic blood pressure;
SS - statistically significant;
TG - triglyceride;
total C - total cholesterol;
V - varied, mixed;
WG - within a study group;
WMD - weighted mean difference;
Y - yes
Number of People in Studies:
3,296 Enrolled in randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
2,626 Completed randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
79.67% 82% completion of studies
Duration of Trial
1 -2 years
# of Trials
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