Long-term effects of a very low carbohydrate compared with a high carbohydrate diet on renal function in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial.
"Long-term effects of a very low carbohydrate compared with a high carbohydrate diet on renal function in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. J Tay, CH Thompson, ND Luscombe-Marsh et al. Medicine 2015 Nov;94(47). See also Tay et al 2015 above."
To compare the long-term effects of a very low carbohydrate, high-protein, low saturated fat (LC) diet with a traditional high unrefined carbohydrate, lowfat (HC) diet on markers of renal function in obese adults with T2D but without overt kidney disease
"Primary: Measures of renal function - albumin excretion rate (AER) - creatinine clearance (CrC) - estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) - serum creatinine (SCr) Secondary: weight, blood pressure"
"SS and p values reported BG only Reductions in weight and blood pressure were BG NSS. Over time, SCr increased in both groups while eGFR, CrCl and AER decreased, BG NSS."
"SCr, urinary albumin, AER, eGFR WG: NR BG: N BG NSS "
"Similar between groups: LC: 70.7% HC: 64.9%"
"E-matched, hypocaloric LC and HC diets had similar effects on markers for renal function in people with T2D without diabetic kidney disease over 12 months. ""...consumption of a LC weight loss diet does not adversely affect renal function in such populations. Longer-term follow-up studies are required..."""
AHA - American Heart Association;
ALT - alanine aminotransferase;
AMDR - acceptable macronutrient distribution range;
AST - aspartate aminotransferase;
BG - between study groups;
BHOB - beta-hydroxybutyrate;
DBP - diastolic blood pressure;
E- energy, caloric intake;
eGFR - estimated glomerular filtration rate;
FBG - fasting blood glucose;
GGT - gamma-glutamyl transferase;
HDL-C - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
iGFR - isotope glomerurar filtration rate;
LDL-C - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
NAFLD - non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;
NR - not reported (or data needed for calculation not available);
N - no;
NA - not applicable;
NS - not specified;
NSS - not statistically significant;
SBP - systolic blood pressure;
SS - statistically significant;
TG - triglyceride;
total C - total cholesterol;
V - varied, mixed;
WG - within a study group;
WMD - weighted mean difference;
Y - yes
Number of People in Studies:
3,296 Enrolled in randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
2,626 Completed randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
79.67% 82% completion of studies
Duration of Trial
1 -2 years
# of Trials
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