Effects of hypocaloric very-low-carbohydrate diet vs. Mediterranean diet on endothelial function in obese women.
"Effects of hypocaloric very-low-carbohydrate diet vs. Mediterranean diet on endothelial function in obese women. Buscemi S, Verga S, Tranchina MR et al. European Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2009 May;39(5):339-47 "
"Obesity is a cardiovascular risk factor associated with endothelial dysfunction, but the effect of different weight loss strategies on endothelial function is not known. Aim: to measure, by brachial artery ﬂow-mediated dilation (FMD), the effect of diet on endothelial function in two hypocaloric diets, a very-low-carbohydrate diet and a Mediterranean diet."
"Atkins (A) diet Targets E: 20kcal/kg body weight Carb: 25g/d for 2 wks, then 10g/d increase weekly for duration of study Protein: 135g/d for 2 wks, then 110g/d for rest of the study Fat: NR Intake first 2 wks / end of study E: NR Carb: 5%E / 20%E Protein: 30%E / 25%E Fat: 65%E / 55%E"
"Mediterranean (M) diet Targets: NR Intake E: 20kcal/kg body weight Carb: 55%E Protein: 20%E, 80g/d Fat: 25%E"
"Primary: FMD and other markers of endothelial function and oxidative stress/inflammation [interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2a (8-isoPGF2a), adiponectin, glyceryltrinitrate (GTN)] Secondary: HOMA-IR, SBP, DBP, lipids, fasting and 2-hr glucose and insulin."
"Weight: both diets resulted in SS weight loss, but Atkins was SS BG. Endothelial function: on all measures, WG NSS both diets. BG NSS. Inflammation: on all measures, WG NSS both diets. BG NSS. Waist & hip size: both diets resulted in SS reductions. BG NSS. All lipids: WG NSS both diets, and BG NSS. Glucose control (HbA1c, FBG & 2-hr post-prandial): WG NSS both diets, and BG NSS. Fasting insulin: both diets resulted in SS improvement. BG NSS. 2-hr post-prandial insulin: Atkins SS favored."
"HOMA-IR WG: Y BG: N Med diet also WG SS. BG NSS Baseline→60days Atkins 5.62→4.09 WG SS p<0.005 Med 4.50→3.64 WG SS p<0.005 BG NSS"
"IL-6, TNF, 8-isoPGF2a WG: N BG: N Med diet also WG NSS. BG NSS"
"Endothelial function FMD & GTN WG: N BG: N Med diet also WG NSS BG NSS Adiponectin WG: N BG: N Med diet also WG NSS. BG NSS"
"""As endothelial dysfunction is known to be associated with acute cardiovascular events, this study suggests that the cardiovascular risk might be increased in the ﬁrst days of a very-low-carbohydrate diet."" "
AHA - American Heart Association;
ALT - alanine aminotransferase;
AMDR - acceptable macronutrient distribution range;
AST - aspartate aminotransferase;
BG - between study groups;
BHOB - beta-hydroxybutyrate;
DBP - diastolic blood pressure;
E- energy, caloric intake;
eGFR - estimated glomerular filtration rate;
FBG - fasting blood glucose;
GGT - gamma-glutamyl transferase;
HDL-C - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
iGFR - isotope glomerurar filtration rate;
LDL-C - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
NAFLD - non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;
NR - not reported (or data needed for calculation not available);
N - no;
NA - not applicable;
NS - not specified;
NSS - not statistically significant;
SBP - systolic blood pressure;
SS - statistically significant;
TG - triglyceride;
total C - total cholesterol;
V - varied, mixed;
WG - within a study group;
WMD - weighted mean difference;
Y - yes
Number of People in Studies:
3,296 Enrolled in randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
2,626 Completed randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
79.67% 82% completion of studies
Duration of Trial
1 -2 years
# of Trials
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