"To examine the effect of 3 diets [(low-fat (LF), low glycemic index (LGI) and very low carb (VLC)] differing in macronutrient composition on total postprandial metabolic fuel energy availability (EA) during weight loss maintenance. "
4 weeks each arm
"VLC diet Targets: E: 2000kcal/d Carb: 10.2%E Protein: 29.8%E Fat: 60%E Intake: NR; presumably same as target in that intervention was inpatient with all meals provided"
"Primary: energy availability (EA), defined as the combined energy density (circulating level x relative energy content) of glucose, free fatty acids, and b-hydroxybutyrate. Secondary outcomes: individual metabolic fuels, metabolic rate, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, and hunger ratings. Outcomes were compared for the early (30 to 150 min) and late (180 to 300 min) postprandial periods. "
"EA did not differ between the test meals during the early postprandial period (p=0.99), but in the late postprandial period was significantly lower after the LF test meal than the LGI (p<0.0001) and VLC (p<0.0001) test meals. Metabolic rate did not differ in the early postprandial period but did differ in the late postprandial period with higher values on the VLC (p=0.0074) than LF(p=0.0064) and LGI (p=0.0066) diets. Hunger ratings: no SS BG differences for diet groups, either in early or late postprandial period."
"""As hypothesized, the LF meal led to lower EA in the late postprandial period compared with the LGI and VLC meals. Consistent with previous studies, the early postprandial period after an LF meal was characterized by a high glucose level and concomitant exaggerated insulin response. ""Metabolic rate did not differ after the three test meals in the early postprandial period but differed significantly in the late postprandial period, with higher metabolic rate after a VLC meal than an LF or LGI meal. This sustained high postprandial metabolic rate after the VLC meal may contribute to the findings that total energy expenditure decreases less after weight loss on a VLC diet than on an LF or LGI diet."""
AHA - American Heart Association;
ALT - alanine aminotransferase;
AMDR - acceptable macronutrient distribution range;
AST - aspartate aminotransferase;
BG - between study groups;
BHOB - beta-hydroxybutyrate;
DBP - diastolic blood pressure;
E- energy, caloric intake;
eGFR - estimated glomerular filtration rate;
FBG - fasting blood glucose;
GGT - gamma-glutamyl transferase;
HDL-C - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
iGFR - isotope glomerurar filtration rate;
LDL-C - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
NAFLD - non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;
NR - not reported (or data needed for calculation not available);
N - no;
NA - not applicable;
NS - not specified;
NSS - not statistically significant;
SBP - systolic blood pressure;
SS - statistically significant;
TG - triglyceride;
total C - total cholesterol;
V - varied, mixed;
WG - within a study group;
WMD - weighted mean difference;
Y - yes
Number of People in Studies:
3,296 Enrolled in randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
2,626 Completed randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
79.67% 82% completion of studies
Duration of Trial
1 -2 years
# of Trials
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