Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor in overweight adolescents.

"Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor in overweight adolescents. Sondike SB, Copperman N, Jacobson MS. Journal of Pediatrics. 2003 Mar;142(3):253-8. "
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To compare the effects of a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet with those of a low-fat (LF) diet on weight loss and serum lipids in overweight adolescents
12 wks
"Targets E: none Carb: 20g/d first 2 wks, then increased to 40g/d Protein: none Fat: none Intake E: 1830kcal/d Carb: 8%E, 36.7g/d Protein: NR Fat: 59.6%E, 121.2g/d "
"Targets E: none Carb: none but no juice and sweetened beverages Protein: none Fat: <40g/d Intake E: 1100kcal/d Carb: 56.1%E, 154.2g/d Protein: NR Fat: 12.3%E, 15g/d"
Primary: lipids; to test the hypothesis that LC diet would result in greater weight loss than LF diet but but would increase CVD risk based on lipid profile.
None other mild; most common: constipation, diarrhea, headache.
Dropout raties similar between groups (4 LC, % LF).
"Non HDL-C WG: Y BG: Y Both diets SS improved LC: -26.0mg/dL LF: -13.6 p=0.036"
"The LC diet appears to be an effective method for short-term weight loss in overweight adolescents and does not harm the lipid profile ... although appearing successful, must be considered as anecdotal,and further long-term follow-up studies must be conducted to confirm these findings."


AHA - American Heart Association;
ALT - alanine aminotransferase;
AMDR - acceptable macronutrient distribution range;
AST - aspartate aminotransferase;
BG - between study groups;
BHOB - beta-hydroxybutyrate;
DBP - diastolic blood pressure;
E- energy, caloric intake;
eGFR - estimated glomerular filtration rate;
FBG - fasting blood glucose;
GGT - gamma-glutamyl transferase;
HDL-C - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
iGFR - isotope glomerurar filtration rate;
LDL-C - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
NAFLD - non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;
NR - not reported (or data needed for calculation not available);
N - no;
NA - not applicable;
NS - not specified;
NSS - not statistically significant;
SBP - systolic blood pressure;
SS - statistically significant;
TG - triglyceride;
total C - total cholesterol;
V - varied, mixed;
WG - within a study group;
WMD - weighted mean difference;
Y - yes

Number of People in Studies:

3,296 Enrolled in randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
2,626 Completed randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
79.67% 82% completion of studies

Duration of Trial

<6 Months
6-9 Months
1 -2 years
>2 years

# of Trials


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