Comparison of the effects of four commercially available weight-loss programmes on lipid-based cardiovascular risk factors LM Morgan, BA Grifﬁn, DJ Millward et al.
"Comparison of the effects of four commercially available weight-loss programmes on lipid-based cardiovascular risk factors LM Morgan, BA Grifﬁn, DJ Millward et al. Public Health Nutrition 2008;12(6):799-807."
Aim: To investigate the relative efﬁcacy -- on plasma lipids and lipoproteins as measures of CVD risk -- of four popular weight-loss programs (Dr Atkins’ New Diet Revolution, The Slim-Fast Plan, Weight Watchers Pure Points program, and Rosemary Conley’s ‘Eat yourself Slim’ Diet and Fitness Plan) against a control diet.
"Enrolled n= 300 overweight and obese adults Completed n=293 (97.7%) Mean age: 40.3y Mean BMI: 31.7 30% male, 70% female "
Each of the 4 diet groups was provided instructional materials (eg Dr Atkins’ New Diet Revolution) and/or supplements (eg Slim-Fast) or reimbursed for any other costs (eg classes). The control group was to continue usual care and exercise until end of study and could then join cost-free any of the diet programs.
"Primary: weight, lipids and lipoproteins Secondary: FBG, fasting insulin, other markers of body composition"
"Weight loss and FBG was SS for all test diets with no SS BG differences in comparison of each test diet to the control diet. All test diets worsened HDL-C, but the Atkins diet was the only one for which this was NSS. All test diets reduced total LDL, but this was SS only for the WW, Slim-Fast and R Conley diets in comparison to control. Three test diets SS improved TG but this was SS compared to control only for WW and Atkins. The reduction in TG was greatest with the Atkins diet. Subjects achieved ~70% of their ﬁnal weight reduction after 2 mos, and this was reﬂected in SS improvements in most metabolic variables by this time. Overall, weight loss was positively correlated with improvements in blood lipids (ie TAG, insulin, glucose, LDL-C and LDL particle size). "
"WG: Y BG: N All test diets and control resulted in SS improvement. No SS BG differences in comparisons of each test diet to control. at 6 mos: Atkins: -5.2% p<0.05 WW: -10.6% p<0.01 Slim-Fast: -4.9% p<0.05 R Conley: -7.6% p<0.01 Control: -4.8% p<0.01"
"WG: N BG: N All 5 diets resulted in a reduction (worsening) in HDL-C. Atkins was the only one for which this was NSS. No SS BG differences for comparisons of each test diet to control. "
"Total LDL WG: N BG: N LDL particle size WG: Y BG: Y Total LDL: All test diets reduced total LDL, but this was SS only for the WW, Slim-Fast and R Conley diets in comparison to control. LDL particle peak density: all diets and the control SS improved density, but only Atkins resulted in SS BG difference compared to the control."
"WG: Y BG: Y 3 test diets (Atkins, WW, R Conley) resulted in SS WG improvement. Only Atkins and WW were SS superior to the control. at 6 mos: Atkins: -38.8% p<0.01 WW: -22.6% p<0.01 Slim-Fast: -13.4% NSS R Conley: -28.0% p<0.01 Control: -1.4% p<0.01"
"WG: Y BG: N All test diets SS reduced weight. at 6 mos: Atkins: -8.9kg, -9.7% p<0.01 WW: -8.0kg, -8.9% p<0.01 Slim-Fast: -6.7kg, -7.3% p<0.01 R Conley: -8.8kg, -10.0% p<0.01 Control: +0.9kg, +1.0% NSS"
"WG: N BG: N Decreased in all diet groups, but this was SS only with the Slim-Fast diet. BG NSS for all comparisons between test diets and control."
"WG: N BG: N BG NSS for all comparisons between test diets and control."
Additional blood samples were taken monthly from the Atkins group to monitor renal function (urea, electrolytes and cystatin C). No adverse effects reported.
"""Overall, these results demonstrate the favorable effects of weight loss on lipid-mediated CVD risk factors that can be achieved through commercially available weight-loss programs. No detrimental effects on lipid-based CVD risk factors were observed in participants consuming a low-carbohydrate diet."" "
AHA - American Heart Association;
ALT - alanine aminotransferase;
AMDR - acceptable macronutrient distribution range;
AST - aspartate aminotransferase;
BG - between study groups;
BHOB - beta-hydroxybutyrate;
DBP - diastolic blood pressure;
E- energy, caloric intake;
eGFR - estimated glomerular filtration rate;
FBG - fasting blood glucose;
GGT - gamma-glutamyl transferase;
HDL-C - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
iGFR - isotope glomerurar filtration rate;
LDL-C - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
NAFLD - non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;
NR - not reported (or data needed for calculation not available);
N - no;
NA - not applicable;
NS - not specified;
NSS - not statistically significant;
SBP - systolic blood pressure;
SS - statistically significant;
TG - triglyceride;
total C - total cholesterol;
V - varied, mixed;
WG - within a study group;
WMD - weighted mean difference;
Y - yes
Number of People in Studies:
3,296 Enrolled in randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
2,626 Completed randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
79.67% 82% completion of studies
Duration of Trial
1 -2 years
# of Trials
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