Comparison of a very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet on fasting lipids, LDL subclasses, insulin resistance, and postprandial lipemic responses in overweight women.
"Comparison of a very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet on fasting lipids, LDL subclasses, insulin resistance, and postprandial lipemic responses in overweight women. Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Gómez AL, DiPasquale C, Roti M, Pumerantz A, Kraemer WJ.Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2004 Apr;23(2):177-84. "
"VLC diet was SS favored over LF diet for improvements in weight, FBG, HDL-C, TG:HDL ratio, HOMA, fasting insulin and VLDL subfraction %. The LF diet was SS favored for total-C, LDL-C. Results similar for TG "
"HOMA WG: NR BG: Y Baseline→Wk 4 VLC 1.28→1.10 LF 1.28→1.63 BG SS p≤0.05"
Excellent compliance -- all subjects in ketosis during VLC diet.
"Oral fat tolerance test SS BG Lipoprotein fractions, %s 11 measures: only one was SS changed VLDL WG: NR BG: Y VLDL% Baseline→Wk 4 VLC 17.2%→13.9 LF 17.2%→16.6 BG SS p≤0.05 LDL particle size WG: NR BG: N BG NSS"
"""Compared to a LF weight loss diet, a short-term VLC diet did not lower LDL-C but did prevent the decline in HDL-C and resulted in improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese, but otherwise healthy women. Small decreases in body mass improved postprandial lipemia, and therefore CVD risk, independent of diet composition."" "
AHA - American Heart Association;
ALT - alanine aminotransferase;
AMDR - acceptable macronutrient distribution range;
AST - aspartate aminotransferase;
BG - between study groups;
BHOB - beta-hydroxybutyrate;
DBP - diastolic blood pressure;
E- energy, caloric intake;
eGFR - estimated glomerular filtration rate;
FBG - fasting blood glucose;
GGT - gamma-glutamyl transferase;
HDL-C - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
iGFR - isotope glomerurar filtration rate;
LDL-C - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
NAFLD - non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;
NR - not reported (or data needed for calculation not available);
N - no;
NA - not applicable;
NS - not specified;
NSS - not statistically significant;
SBP - systolic blood pressure;
SS - statistically significant;
TG - triglyceride;
total C - total cholesterol;
V - varied, mixed;
WG - within a study group;
WMD - weighted mean difference;
Y - yes
Number of People in Studies:
3,296 Enrolled in randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
2,626 Completed randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
79.67% 82% completion of studies
Duration of Trial
1 -2 years
# of Trials
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