Comparison of a low-fat diet to a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss, body composition, and risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in free-living, overweight men and women.
"Comparison of a low-fat diet to a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss, body composition, and risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in free-living, overweight men and women. Meckling KA, O'Sullivan C, Saari D. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2004 Jun;89(6):2717-23.- "
"Primary: weight, other measures of body composition Secondary: markers for CVD risk - lipids, FBG, fasting insulin, SBP, DBP, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1); B-hydroxybutyrate."
"Weight loss and other body composition markers improved on both diets with NSS BG differences. Exception was for lean mass, in which both diets worsened but only SS so in LC diet. BG NSS Lipids: LF was favored for total C and LDL-C. Both groups SS improved TG. HDL-C favored LC diet. LC diet also improved markers for insulin and insulin sensitivity; LF diet did not. "
"Insulin:glucose ratio WG: Y BG: N PAI-1 activity WG: Y BG: N BG NSS"
"""A LF regimen may be preferred when reduction of blood cholesterol is a primary goal, whereas the LC regimen may be more appropriate when improvement in insulin sensitivity is the target. Either [LF or LC diet] promotes loss of fat weight and improvements of similar magnitude in blood pressure, and triglycerides, both of which can be seen as additional benefits to chronic disease risk reduction in addition to weight loss itself."" "
AHA - American Heart Association;
ALT - alanine aminotransferase;
AMDR - acceptable macronutrient distribution range;
AST - aspartate aminotransferase;
BG - between study groups;
BHOB - beta-hydroxybutyrate;
DBP - diastolic blood pressure;
E- energy, caloric intake;
eGFR - estimated glomerular filtration rate;
FBG - fasting blood glucose;
GGT - gamma-glutamyl transferase;
HDL-C - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
iGFR - isotope glomerurar filtration rate;
LDL-C - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
NAFLD - non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;
NR - not reported (or data needed for calculation not available);
N - no;
NA - not applicable;
NS - not specified;
NSS - not statistically significant;
SBP - systolic blood pressure;
SS - statistically significant;
TG - triglyceride;
total C - total cholesterol;
V - varied, mixed;
WG - within a study group;
WMD - weighted mean difference;
Y - yes
Number of People in Studies:
3,296 Enrolled in randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
2,626 Completed randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
79.67% 82% completion of studies
Duration of Trial
1 -2 years
# of Trials
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