An isoenergetic very low carbohydrate diet improves serum HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations, the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio and postprandial pipemic responses compared with a low fat diet in normal weight, normolipidemic women.
An isoenergetic very low carbohydrate diet improves serum HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations, the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio and postprandial pipemic responses compared with a low fat diet in normal weight, normolipidemic women. JS Volek, MJ Sharman, AL Gomez et al. Journal of Nutrition 2003;133:2756-2761.
"These researchers reported previously that a very low carbohydrate (VLC) diet favorably affected fasting and postprandial TG, LDL subclasses and HDL-C in men but the effects in women were unclear. Aim: To compare the effects of a VLC and a lowfat (LF) diet on fasting lipids, postprandial lipemia [excess fats in the blood] and markers of inﬂammation in women. "
4 wks on each diet
"VLC diet Targets E: individualized and based on resting E expenditure. Carb: ~10%E Protein: ~30%E Fat: ~60%E Intake: E: 7.5MJ/d (~1791kcal/d) Carb: 43g/d, 10%E Protein: 128g/d, 29%E Fat: 118g/d, 60%E"
"LF diet E: individualized and based on resting E expenditure. Carb: ~55%E Protein: ~20%E Fat: ~25%E Intake: E: 7.5MJ/d (~1576kcal/d) Carb: 249g/d, 62%E Protein: 68g/d, 17%E Fat: 34g/d, 19%E"
Primary: blood lipids, including LDL subclasses and postprandial TG, markers for inflammation.
"Neither diet SS affected markers for inflammation or most LDL-C subclasses. Overall, the VLC diet resulted in greater reduction in CVD risk, compared to the LF diet, due to SS improvements in fasting and postprandial TG, HDL-C the total C:HDL-C ratio, and the SS decrease in very low density lipoproteins. The LF diet compared to the VLC diet resulted in SS decreases in total C and LDL-C."
"CRP and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-a) WG: N BG: N"
"100% Excellent compliance"
"Male-female differences found in this study vs similar one on normal-weight men (6-wk on VLC diet): Men/Women total C: +5%/16% LDL-C: +4%/15% HDL-C: +12%/33% postprandial TG: -29%/31%"
"While results are ""not to be used to make recommendations to the public,"" ... a short-term isoenergetic VLC diet SS decreased fasting and postprandial TG, SS increasedHDL-C, SS decreased the total C:HDL-C ratio and did not affect markers of inﬂammation. Our results indicate that in the short term, there is not an adverse response in terms of accepted biomarkers of CVD risk in healthy normolipidemic women, even in the absence of large reductions in body mass."" "
AHA - American Heart Association;
ALT - alanine aminotransferase;
AMDR - acceptable macronutrient distribution range;
AST - aspartate aminotransferase;
BG - between study groups;
BHOB - beta-hydroxybutyrate;
DBP - diastolic blood pressure;
E- energy, caloric intake;
eGFR - estimated glomerular filtration rate;
FBG - fasting blood glucose;
GGT - gamma-glutamyl transferase;
HDL-C - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
iGFR - isotope glomerurar filtration rate;
LDL-C - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
NAFLD - non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;
NR - not reported (or data needed for calculation not available);
N - no;
NA - not applicable;
NS - not specified;
NSS - not statistically significant;
SBP - systolic blood pressure;
SS - statistically significant;
TG - triglyceride;
total C - total cholesterol;
V - varied, mixed;
WG - within a study group;
WMD - weighted mean difference;
Y - yes
Number of People in Studies:
3,296 Enrolled in randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
2,626 Completed randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
79.67% 82% completion of studies
Duration of Trial
1 -2 years
# of Trials
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