"Primary: weight, other measures of body composition Secondary: markers for CVD risk - lipids, FBG, fasting insulin, SBP, DBP, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1); B-hydroxybutyrate."
"Weight loss and other body composition markers improved on both diets with NSS BG differences. Exception was for lean mass, in which both diets worsened but only SS so in LC diet. BG NSS Lipids: LF was favored for total C and LDL-C. Both groups SS improved TG. HDL-C favored LC diet. LC diet also improved markers for insulin and insulin sensitivity; LF diet did not. "
"WG: N BG: N Neither diet group WG SS. BG NSS"
"WG: N BG: N LF was SS. BG SS favoring LF Baseline→wk 10 LC: 230mg/dL→232 LF: 228→166 WG SS and BG SS p<0.05"
"WG: Y BG: Y Baseline→wk 10 LC: 49mg/dL→55 WG SS p<0.05 LF: 52mg/dL→44 SS worsened p<0.05 BG SS p<0.05"
"Total LDL-C WG: N BG: N WG SS improvement only with LF group. BG SS favoring LF. Total LDL-C Baseline→wk 10 LC: 169mg/dL→170 WG NSS LF: 165mg/dL→113 SS WGp<0.05 BG SS p<0.05 favoring LF diet LDL:HDL ratio WG: Y BG: N SS improvement both groups SS BG favoring LF diet "
"Total TG WG: N BG: N SS improvement in both groups. BG NSS Baseline→wk 10 LC: 136mg/dL→96 WG SS p<0.05 LF: 134mg/dL→100 SS WG p<0.05 BG NSS TG:HDL-C ratio WG: Y BG: Y Improved WG both groups. BG SS favoring LC "
"Weight, BMI, fat weight (% and kg), lean weight (%), all: WG: Y BG: N Both diets improved these markers. None BG SS Weight change, BMI change LC: -7kg, -2.1 LF: -6.8kg, -2.2 Lean weight (kg) WG: N BG: N Worsened in both groups. Only SS worse in LC diet."
"WG: Y BG: N BG NSS Both groups improved SS by ~10mmHg."
"WG: Y BG: N BG NSS Both groups improved SS by ~5mmHg."
"WG: Y BG: Y Baseline→wk 10 LC diet: 23.7mIU/ml→16.9 WG SS p<0.05 LF diet: 20.9→20.2 WG NSS BG SS p<0.05"
"Insulin:glucose ratio WG: Y BG: N PAI-1 activity WG: Y BG: N BG NSS"
"""A LF regimen may be preferred when reduction of blood cholesterol is a primary goal, whereas the LC regimen may be more appropriate when improvement in insulin sensitivity is the target. Either [LF or LC diet] promotes loss of fat weight and improvements of similar magnitude in blood pressure, and triglycerides, both of which can be seen as additional benefits to chronic disease risk reduction in addition to weight loss itself."" "
AHA - American Heart Association;
ALT - alanine aminotransferase;
AMDR - acceptable macronutrient distribution range;
AST - aspartate aminotransferase;
BG - between study groups;
BHOB - beta-hydroxybutyrate;
DBP - diastolic blood pressure;
E- energy, caloric intake;
eGFR - estimated glomerular filtration rate;
FBG - fasting blood glucose;
GGT - gamma-glutamyl transferase;
HDL-C - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
iGFR - isotope glomerurar filtration rate;
LDL-C - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
NAFLD - non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;
NR - not reported (or data needed for calculation not available);
N - no;
NA - not applicable;
NS - not specified;
NSS - not statistically significant;
SBP - systolic blood pressure;
SS - statistically significant;
TG - triglyceride;
total C - total cholesterol;
V - varied, mixed;
WG - within a study group;
WMD - weighted mean difference;
Y - yes
Number of People in Studies:
3,296 Enrolled in randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
2,626 Completed randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
79.67% 82% completion of studies
Duration of Trial
1 -2 years
# of Trials
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