Advice to follow a low-carbohydrate diet has a favourable impact on low-grade inﬂammation in type 2 diabetes compared with advice to follow a low-fat diet.
"Advice to follow a low-carbohydrate diet has a favourable impact on low-grade inﬂammation in type 2 diabetes compared with advice to follow a low-fat diet. L Jonasson, H Guldbrand, AK Lundberg, et al. Annals of Medicine 2014 May;46(3):182-7. "
"Primary: markers for inflammation, HbA1c, weight "
At 6 months: Both groups showed a SS reduction in BMI, and the BG difference was NSS. The LC group had a SS reduction in HbA1c and SS increase in HDL-C, but neither was SS BG. Levels for IL-Ra and Il-6 were SS lower in the LC group than in the LF group.
"C-reactive protein WG: N BG: N BG NSS Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist WG: Y BG: Y IL-6 WG: N BG: Y Increased SS in LF group Tumor necrosis factor R1 WG: N BG: B BG NSS Tumor necrosis factor R2 WG: N BG: N BG NSS IL-1β and TNF: below detectable levels in all subjects "
The LC and LF diets had similar effects on weight reduction while effects on inflammation differed. Only LC diet SS improved inflammation in T2D.
AHA - American Heart Association;
ALT - alanine aminotransferase;
AMDR - acceptable macronutrient distribution range;
AST - aspartate aminotransferase;
BG - between study groups;
BHOB - beta-hydroxybutyrate;
DBP - diastolic blood pressure;
E- energy, caloric intake;
eGFR - estimated glomerular filtration rate;
FBG - fasting blood glucose;
GGT - gamma-glutamyl transferase;
HDL-C - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
iGFR - isotope glomerurar filtration rate;
LDL-C - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
NAFLD - non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;
NR - not reported (or data needed for calculation not available);
N - no;
NA - not applicable;
NS - not specified;
NSS - not statistically significant;
SBP - systolic blood pressure;
SS - statistically significant;
TG - triglyceride;
total C - total cholesterol;
V - varied, mixed;
WG - within a study group;
WMD - weighted mean difference;
Y - yes
Number of People in Studies:
3,296 Enrolled in randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
2,626 Completed randomized controlled trials on 25% or less carbohydrates
79.67% 82% completion of studies
Duration of Trial
1 -2 years
# of Trials
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